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Second Life in Education

Bibliography and Other Resources

You can find a library at Second Life according to Andrea Mercado'a blog LibraryTechtonics A librarian riding the shift

An excellent podcast interview with an authority on second life, Simulation and Gaming in Education, Parts 1 and 2 (12/11/06) Co-hosts Dr. Richard A. Smith and Dr. Caroline M. Crawford are joined by guest co-host Virginia Dickenson in a freewheeling discussion of simulation and gaming in education and in particular its potential in Second Life, the “3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.” Education and Technology Today A Podcast Series Produced by the Instructional Technology program of the School of Education of the University of Houston-Clear Lake; part 1: and part 2:


Antonacci, David M. and Nellie Modaress. 2005. Second Life: The Educational Possibilities of a Massively Multiplayer Virtual World (MMVW). Presentaton at various EDUCAUSE Regional Conferences, February - December 2005. Retrieved December 15, 2006 from: There is presented here a constructivist and social learning rationale for using games and simulations in education. There are demo videos linked here of changing avatar appearance, moving around in SL, role playing, building skills, and satellite orbiting.

Carvin, Andy. 2006. CyberOne: A Glimpse of the Future Classroom? PBS Teacher Source > Technology and Teaching > Learning.Now, October 3, 2006. Retrieved December 9, 2006 from Quotes: "Second Life is home to pretty much everything you can imagine in real life, both good or bad, and thanks to CyberOne, it’s now home to the first accredited course from a major university. Each time students gather at Harvard for the class, virtual participants gather on Berkman Island, a virtual representation of Harvard’s law campus." Carvin characterizes use of SL in the context of other tools such as: blogging, wiki, Moodle, and "a brand-new programming environment called Scratch. Developed by the MIT Media Lab, Scratch is an example of what I sometimes refer to as Web 3.0. While Web 1.0 allowed people to read content and Web 2.0 allows people to write content, Web 3.0 allows you to execute your own programs over the Internet. Until now, online programming was limited to those individuals with a high level of requisite technical skills, but new tools like Scratch will allow people to graphically construct their own software. In the case of the CyberOne class, students will be expected to use Scratch to design their own online games. No previous programming experience is required - just like blogging allowed people with no online publishing experience to become publishers. Last but not least, CyberOne is employing an online question tool. This allows real life and Second Life students to ask questions online and have them appear on the wall behind the instructors," a system potentially prone to F.U.N

Dede, Chris. 2005. Planning for Neomillennial Learning Styles. Educause Quarterly, Volume 28 Number 1. Retrieved December 12, 2006 from

Lamb, Gregory M.. 2006. Real learning in a virtual world. The Christian Science Monitor, October 05, 2006. Retrieved December 9, 2006 from Quotes: "Other classes using SL include undergraduate English composition courses at Ball State and Central Missouri State universities, an education course at Pepperdine University, and a medical course on hypertension at the University of Tennessee. This winter, Bradley University will offer what the instructor calls "Field Research in Second Life." ... "Education is actually growing to become a very significant part of how SL is used," says John Lester, community and education manager at Linden Lab, the San Francisco-based company that owns and operates Second Life, now in its third year. Unlike role-playing games, Linden Labs has not provided a "story" for residents to experience, Mr. Lester says. The residents create all of what they find inside SL. For example, teachers of architecture bring their students to SL to build things that would either be too expensive or physically impossible to create in the real world. "The students can see each other while they're building and work collaboratively around projects," Lester says. Others, such as psychologists and sociologists, study what people choose to do in SL and why they're doing it, he says. ... SL is a middle ground between the familiar and the fanciful, where imaginations can blossom, he says.... Also inside SL, real-world businesses experiment with new business models, computer science students run new programs while classmates and others watch, and chemistry students walk around and discuss a giant model of a molecule they've built. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is creating simulations inside SL to teach the public about tsunamis and other phenomena. A federally funded bioterrorism-preparedness project, Play2Train, has built its own virtual town and hospital. "It's still a pioneering space. We're still trying to figure out how to use it best," Lester says.

Lee, M., Eustace, K., Fellows, G., Bytheway, A. & Irving, L. (2005). Using Massively-Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games to Enhance Collaborative Learning and Teaching in the Australian High School Classroom. In P. Kommers & G. Richards (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2005 (pp. 2039-2046). Chesapeake, VA: AACE

Peterson, Mark. 2006. Learner Interaction Management in an Avatar and Chat-based Virtual World. Computer Assisted Language Learning Vol. 19, No. 1, February 2006, pp. 79 – 103 - This paper explores the notions of telepresence and co-presence and finds that perceptions of both were enhanced when 24 students of EFL in Japan carried out activities requiring negotiation in Active Worlds. It also found that the ability to move avatars to quiet places overcame some problems with following too much chat. It also sites other research in AW, including one where building tasks enhanced language learning. It concludes by identifying areas of potential for future research in the use of avatar-based virtual worlds in computer assisted language learning (CALL). Learner interaction was influenced by the complex interaction of a number of variables including task type, sociolinguistic factors, context of use and the mix of technical affordances provided by Active Worlds. The use of avatars facilitated learner interaction management during real time CMC.

Prisco, Giuli. Real Virtuality in your Second Life and beyond: Virtual Reality is ready for prime time and is catching up with science fiction literature This article gives a nice description of several projects in Second Life.

Svensson, P. (2003). Virtual worlds as arenas for language learning. In U. Felix (Ed.). Language learning online: Towards best practice (pp.123-142). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger. A study that showed enhanced feelings of telepresence in Active Worlds.

Von Der Emde, S., Schneider, J., and Kotter, M. (2001). Technically speaking: Transforming language learning through virtual learning environments (MOOs), The Modern Language Journal, 85, 211-225.

Wong, Grace. 2006. Educators explore 'Second Life' online. CNN, November 14, 2006. Retrieved December 9, 2006 from Quote: "More than 60 schools and educational organizations have set up shop in the virtual world and are exploring ways it can be used to promote learning."

More resources and Information

Alternatives to Second Life

ProtoSphere (TM)) for businesses and educators:

Second Life compared with There, - Virtual Worlds: More than a Game by Richard Sandford, Learning Researcher, Futurelab

The VR in Education Research Project

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