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See a handout for a seminar prepared from this web page on Concordancing with Students
See also Sources of Texts and Corpora here:

Text Analysis:
Concordance and Collocation

(Seen May 2, 2000 and updated 16 Feb 2004) A comprehensive ICT4LT Module 2.4, Using concordance programs in the modern foreign languages classroom; retrieved February 21, 2004 from:


Free Concordancer Programs

Commercial Concordance Programs

Web-based Concordancers


Examples of activities that can be done with concordancers



When this page originated last century, CALL practitioners used to assemble bibliographies by brute force and share them on pages like this. Nowadays, Google does a better job of that. The linkrot here was pruned in 2013, but what follows is not likely to be of much use to those seeking current developments in text analysis. Internet search will be best suited to that.

Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list, TESOL Quarterly, 34(2): 213-238. Coxhead's Webpage gives sublists of the AWL for frequent words in academic texts and tips on how to best learn words in the list:

Tim Johns, "Contexts: the Background, Development and Trialling of a Concordance-based CALL Program." In A. Wichmann, S. Fligelstone, T. McEnery, and G. Knowles (eds.) _Teaching and Language Corpora_. London: Longman, 1997. 100-115.

According to a posting on on Nov 2, 1998, corpus-based teaching practices are covered in:

Stevens, Vance. "Concordancing with Language Learners: Why? When? What?" CAELL Journal, vol 6 #2, Summer 1995 pp. 2-10. Available:, and 1995caell-concordancing1mb.pdf

Bibliography on Parallel Concordancing

John Nerbonne, 08 May 1999, compiled a bibliography addressing the value of parallel texts in foreign language learning and sent it to calico-l with the following comments (permission to quote granted August 10, 2000):

"Most of the papers are very interesting experiments on PROVIDING parallel texts to users without evaluation of success. If you're going to read one paper on this, it should be Barlow's.

Maybe the most intelligent basic discussion was Palmer (1917), though it concerned the use of translation in second language learning, not parallel texts per se. He touched on many important issues (mixed in with comments that sound strange to the modern ear, e.g., speculations on which peoples learn languages best!)."

With specific mention of parallel texts:

Barlow, M. (1996). Parallel Texts in Language Teaching. In Botley et al. (eds.) Proceedings of Teaching and Language Corpora 1996. 45-56.

Botley, S., Glass, J., McEnery, T., Wilson, A. (eds.) (1996) Proceedings of Teaching and Language Corpora 1996. Technical Paper 9, University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, Lancaster

Paskaleva, E., Mihov, S. (1998). Second Language Acquisition from Aligned Corpora. In Jager, J., Nerbonne, J., van Essen, A. (eds), Language Teaching and Language Technology, Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, 43-52.

Peters, C., Picchi, E., Biagini, L. (1996) Parallel and Comparable Bilingual Corpora in Language Teaching and Learning. In In Botley et al. (eds.) Proceedings of Teaching and Language orpora 1996. 68-82.

"COMMENT: only Barlow and Peters et al. attempt arguments in favor of the use of parallel texts. Paskaleva and Mihov provide a tool for alignment, citing second language learning as a primary motivation."

Others mentioned

Bailin, A. (1995). Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning: A Bibliography. Computers and the Humanities 29 (5), 375-387.

Bauer, D., Segond, F., Zaenen, A. (1995). LOCOLEX: Translation Rolls off your Tongue. In Proc. of the Conference of the ACH-ALLC '95, Santa Barbara, USA.

Van Els, T., Extra, G., van Os, Ch., Bongaerts, Th. (1977). Handboek voor de Toegepaste Taalkunde, Wolters-Noordhof, Groningen. Translated as Applied Linguistics and the Learning and Teaching of Foreign Languages (1984), Edward Arnold, London.

Johns, T. (1991). Should you be Persuaded-Two Samples of Data-Driven Learning Materials. In Johns, T., King, P. (eds.) Classroom Concordancing. 1-16. Johns, T. (1993) Data-Driven Learning: An Update. TELL & CALL, 3.

Krashen, S. (1982). The Fundamental Pedagogical Principle in Second-Language Teaching. Studia Linguistica 35 (1-2).

Levy, M. (1997). Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Context and Conceptualization. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Nerbonne, J. and Dokter, D. (1999). An Intelligent, Word-Based Language Learning Assistant. Traitement Automatique des Languages 40(1), 1-18.

Nerbonne, J., Dokter, D., Smit, P. (1998). Morphological Processing and Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Computer-Assisted Language Learning, 11(5), 421-437.

Palmer, H. (1968, 1ed. 1917). The Scientific Study and Teaching of Languages. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Walker, S., Edwards, V., Blacksell, R. (1996). Designing Bilingual Books for Children. Visible Language 30(3), 268-283.

Wichmann, A., Fligelstone, S., McEnery, T., Knowles, G. (1997). Teaching and Language Corpora. Addison-Wesley, New York.

Widdowson, H. (1990). Aspects of Language Teaching. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


June Thompson provides this “description of Multiconcord, taken from the CTICML online database. For full details, go to (NOT FOUND February 21, 2004) … Multiconcord is a Multilingual Parallel Concordancer. Working with source texts  and their translations, it allows the searching for words or phrases in any one of the languages and will display the sentence(s) in which the search pattern occurs, together with the sentence(s) which translate it. All languages can be either Source or Target and switching between them is extremely simple. To minimise data preparation the alignment is done during searching and results are usually at least 90% accurate. A companion program is supplied to assist with the mark up. The results can be sorted, filtered and categorised by the user. The results can also be used to generate one of six types of language tests in either the source or target language, which can be attempted on screen or saved as a file.” (quoted with permission April 11, 2000)

There is a textbook with a concordance-based approach: Focus on vocabulary: Mastering the academic word list by Diane Schmitt and Norbert Schmitt. 2005. Longman Pearson.

ReCALL 19 (3) is a special issue on the use of Corpora in Language Learning, now in press, scheduled to be distributed in September 2007. Contents:

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