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See a handout for a seminar
prepared from this web page on Concordancing with
See also Sources of Texts and Corpora here:
Concordance and Collocation
(Seen May 2, 2000 and updated 16 Feb 2004) A
comprehensive ICT4LT Module 2.4, Using concordance programs in the modern
foreign languages classroom; retrieved February 21, 2004
Free Concordancer Programs
- Laurence Anthony's AntConc
3.2.0, A Freeware Concordance Program for Windows, Mac, and Linux,
available at http://www.antlab.sci.waseda.ac.jp/software.html.
Tools featured include: Concordance, Concordance Plot, File View, Clusters,
N-Grams (part of Clusters), Collocates, Word List, and Keyword List.
- "Conc Concordance
Generator" for Macintosh only,
(seen online Oct 4, 2006) - Freeware
- Burkhard Leuschner has a page
sporting KONTEXT Concodancer Suite, a DOS-program whose interface is
German but documentation is in English. The program is free (but not public
(per author, 12/8/99) (seen online Oct 4,
- Oxford University Press let
MicroConcord go out of print in 1997. It's a DOS program and was
available for free from Mike Scott's web site (seen online
Oct 4, 2006). Scott developed the program with Tim Johns in 1993,
and Googling it takes you to an article on WordSmith
which points to a site where in 2013 you could download various versions of the
program and, under the download tab, MicroConcord at as well:
- Wordsmith Tools by OUP
- fully working copies from http://www.lexically.net/wordsmith/
(seen online Oct 4, 2006)
- Simple Concordance Program
4.0.4, by Alan Reed. Available from:
freeware (seen online Oct 4, 2006)
- TextSTAT - Simple Text
Analysis Tool Concordance software for Windows, GNU/Linux and MacOS X (free)
- free and Open Source (coded in Python) (seen online
Oct 4, 2006)
- WConcord: downloadable
from Darmstadt University Available from:
freeware (opens a page in German, not obvious where to go
- Mike Scott's Wordsmith
Tools can be fetched from http://nora.hd.uib.no/wordsmith/
(seen online Oct 4, 2006)-
Commercial Concordance Programs
- Concordance can make
concordances, wordlists, and Web Concordances, and can display the most
frequent collocations of words. According to its developer, Rob Watt, Its
unique ability, however, is to turn a concordance into HTML ready for the web
with a single click An unregistered fully functional version with a time
limit is available from http://www.concordancesoftware.co.uk
(seen online Oct 4, 2006). Vance Stevens's review
of version 2.0 of this program (March 2001) is no longer available here
(Calico.org under construction in Oct 2004):
(seen online March 1, 2005).
- Monoconc (Athelstan)
can be purchased at http://www.athel.com
(seen online Oct 4, 2006) My review can be found
- A review of
MultiConcord, a parallel concordancer, can be found at
- TextQuest - Software for
text analysis from Social Science Consulting (Germany)
- Hong Kong Virtual Language
Centre have a web based concordancer at:
- The Collins Cobuild
page is here: http://www.cobuild.collins.co.uk/
(seen online February 21, 2004) There is a link
in there for Concordance and Collocation Demonstrations, but these links were
not working on the date indicated. There is also a WordbanksOnline
subscription service whose link is not working either. There is a note on the
main page saying the site is undergoing changes, be patient.
http://www.lextutor.ca, The Compleat
Lexical Tutor by Tom Cobb, Dép de linguistique et de didactique des
langues at l'Université du Québec à Montréal has an
interesting frequency-list based concordancer with attached dictionary
especially appropriate to language learners. Click on an alphabetical listing
to get a root word and its derivations, and click on a derivation to get a
concordance of that word. The work was done in conjunction with Chris Greaves
at Polytechnic University of HK, home of Chris Greave's Virtual Language Centre
(http://vlc.polyu.edu.hk/) - Marti
Sevier (now at Simon Frazier University) has written some Webpages on using it,
and her informative review is in TESL-EJ:
(seen online July 22, 2005)
to a July 2007 posting on TESLCA-L "trawls the web like a search engine. It can
be slowish in returning results but what you can do with it really does
leverage the language learning potential of a concordancer." A response
indicated that "The principle is brilliant, but "slowish" doesn't come close to
describing Webcorp's performance. After five minutes of staring at a blank
screen and an hour-glass icon, I gave up." - I'm checking downloaded email
on a bus in Spain now but when I get a chance I'll try it over a fast
connection - Vance)
- From a posting on TESLCA-L
April 21, 2005: There is a new, free resource that may be of interest to ESL
teachers, students, and materials developers: http://view.byu.edu "Variation in English Words
and Phrases" This is an interface to the 100 million word British National
Corpus, probably the most well-known corpus of English. With this interface,
you or your students can carry out the following types of searches, many of
which are not available via any other interface:
- Search for words and phrases
by exact word or phrase, wildcard or part of speech, or combinations of these
(e.g. *ly good/bad [n*]: really good time, extremely bad idea)
- Use anchors and targets for
fuzzy matches (e.g. all nouns somewhere near [paper], all adjectives near
[woman], or all nouns near [spin]).
- Unlike other interfaces, you
can find the frequency of words and phrases in any combination of registers
that you define (spoken, academic, poetry, medical, etc), e.g. the most common
nouns in natural sciences texts, adjectives in tabloid newspapers, or verbs in
- Unlike other interfaces, you
can easily compare between synonyms and other semantically-related words. One
simple search, for example, shows the most frequent nouns that appear with
[sheer], [complete], or [utter] (sheer nonsense, complete account, utter
dismay), but not with the others. Another simple search, for example, would
look for adjectives that occur with [woman] but not [man] or [child].
- Finally, you can input
information from WordNet (a semantically-organized lexicon of English) directly
into the search form. This allows you to find the frequency and distribution of
words with similar, more general, or more specific meanings (e.g. the frequency
of synonyms of [world], or the frequency of more specific words for [jump])
- Find more Sources of Texts
and Corpora here in this web project: http://www.vancestevens.com/textfind.htm
Examples of activities that can be done with concordancers
Bauer-Ramazani's ESL Teaching & Learning Resources Concordancing
& Collocations must be as hard to maintain as this one is :-)
- Michael Barlow's Corpus
Linguistics Page is no longer hosted at Rice University, but check here:
- Horst Bogatz has "a
great number of links to research on collocations and a review of my bilingual
collocational dictionary ARCS (The Advanced Reader´s Collocation
Searcher). "The design of ARCS connects all pages that have at least one word
in common. Thus The Advanced Reader's Collocation Searcher imitates the mental
lexicon. It is really unique. Depending on whether the search starts from a
noun, verb, adjective, or adverb, the user looks up a headword (node) in either
the Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Synonym, or German section. A global search
can start from English and/ or German words. Also, sample pages have been
prepared. They may serve as examples of the 3,000 pages of ARCS." ARCS is
distributed by ELDA (the European Language Distribution Agency, which is funded
by the European Commission); more information cannot possibly be found at
(but LinkSleuth says the link works, Jan 18,
2013). Recently have been added "an almost comprehensive list of
books and articles on collocations, collocational dictionaries and data-driven
- CTI Textual Studies
site in Oxford http://info.ox.ac.uk/ctitext/enquiry/tat01a.html
(seen online February 21, 2004)
- Tim Johns Data Driven
Learning Page, http://web.bham.ac.uk/johnstf/timconc.htm was seen online
February 21, 2004. However, as of late April 2004 U. of Birmingham's web
service is telling us "You are not allowed access to this web object."
Concerned colleagues searched The Internet Wayback Machine at
http://www.archive.org and found
- Ruth Vilmi has posted
work on concordancing and searching for language structures etc. to her
Language Search page at:
gives complete sentences containing the word you search for. All sentences are
from the Voice of America's (VOA) special English broadcasts.
(seen online February 21, 2004)
- UGRU of UAE
University (Al Ain) Concordance Learning materials for students has concordance
based Materials: http://www.ugru.uaeu.ac.ae/concordance/.
Works with limited vocabulary (seen online June 5,
When this page originated last century, CALL practitioners used to
assemble bibliographies by brute force and share them on pages like this.
Nowadays, Google does a better job of that. The linkrot here was pruned in
2013, but what follows is not likely to be of much use to those seeking current
developments in text analysis. Internet search will be best suited to that.
Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list, TESOL Quarterly,
34(2): 213-238. Coxhead's Webpage gives sublists of the AWL for frequent words
in academic texts and tips on how to best learn words in the list:
Tim Johns, "Contexts: the Background, Development and Trialling
of a Concordance-based CALL Program." In A. Wichmann, S. Fligelstone, T.
McEnery, and G. Knowles (eds.) _Teaching and Language Corpora_. London:
Longman, 1997. 100-115.
According to a posting on email@example.com on Nov 2, 1998,
corpus-based teaching practices are covered in:
- Granger, S. (Ed.) (1998)
LEARNER ENGLISH ON COMPUTER, Studies in Language and Linguistics. Longman. UK.
- Wichmann, A., S.
Fligelstone, T. McEnery & G. Knowles (Eds.) (1997) TEACHING AND LANGUAGE
CORPORA, Applied Linguistics and Language Study Series, General Editor: C. N.
Candlin, Longman. UK.
Stevens, Vance. "Concordancing with Language Learners: Why?
When? What?" CAELL Journal, vol 6 #2, Summer 1995 pp. 2-10. Available:
Bibliography on Parallel Concordancing
John Nerbonne, 08 May 1999, compiled a bibliography
addressing the value of parallel texts in foreign language learning and sent it
to calico-l with the following comments (permission to quote granted August 10,
"Most of the papers are very interesting experiments on PROVIDING
parallel texts to users without evaluation of success. If you're going to read
one paper on this, it should be Barlow's.
Maybe the most intelligent basic discussion was Palmer (1917), though
it concerned the use of translation in second language learning, not parallel
texts per se. He touched on many important issues (mixed in with comments that
sound strange to the modern ear, e.g., speculations on which peoples learn
With specific mention of parallel texts:
Barlow, M. (1996). Parallel Texts in Language Teaching. In Botley et
al. (eds.) Proceedings of Teaching and Language Corpora 1996. 45-56.
Botley, S., Glass, J., McEnery, T., Wilson, A. (eds.) (1996)
Proceedings of Teaching and Language Corpora 1996. Technical Paper 9,
University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, Lancaster
Paskaleva, E., Mihov, S. (1998). Second Language Acquisition from
Aligned Corpora. In Jager, J., Nerbonne, J., van Essen, A. (eds), Language
Teaching and Language Technology, Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, 43-52.
Peters, C., Picchi, E., Biagini, L. (1996) Parallel and Comparable
Bilingual Corpora in Language Teaching and Learning. In In Botley et al. (eds.)
Proceedings of Teaching and Language orpora 1996. 68-82.
"COMMENT: only Barlow and Peters et al. attempt arguments in favor
of the use of parallel texts. Paskaleva and Mihov provide a tool for alignment,
citing second language learning as a primary motivation."
Bailin, A. (1995). Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning: A
Bibliography. Computers and the Humanities 29 (5), 375-387.
Bauer, D., Segond, F., Zaenen, A. (1995). LOCOLEX: Translation Rolls
off your Tongue. In Proc. of the Conference of the ACH-ALLC '95, Santa Barbara,
Van Els, T., Extra, G., van Os, Ch., Bongaerts, Th. (1977). Handboek
voor de Toegepaste Taalkunde, Wolters-Noordhof, Groningen. Translated as
Applied Linguistics and the Learning and Teaching of Foreign Languages (1984),
Edward Arnold, London.
Johns, T. (1991). Should you be Persuaded-Two Samples of Data-Driven
Learning Materials. In Johns, T., King, P. (eds.) Classroom Concordancing.
1-16. Johns, T. (1993) Data-Driven Learning: An Update. TELL & CALL, 3.
Krashen, S. (1982). The Fundamental Pedagogical Principle in
Second-Language Teaching. Studia Linguistica 35 (1-2).
Levy, M. (1997). Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Context and
Conceptualization. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Nerbonne, J. and Dokter, D. (1999). An Intelligent, Word-Based
Language Learning Assistant. Traitement Automatique des Languages 40(1),
Nerbonne, J., Dokter, D., Smit, P. (1998). Morphological Processing
and Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Computer-Assisted Language Learning,
Palmer, H. (1968, 1ed. 1917). The Scientific Study and Teaching of
Languages. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Walker, S., Edwards, V., Blacksell, R. (1996). Designing Bilingual
Books for Children. Visible Language 30(3), 268-283.
Wichmann, A., Fligelstone, S., McEnery, T., Knowles, G. (1997).
Teaching and Language Corpora. Addison-Wesley, New York.
Widdowson, H. (1990). Aspects of Language Teaching. Oxford University
June Thompson provides this description of Multiconcord, taken
from the CTICML online database. For full details, go to
(NOT FOUND February 21, 2004)
Multiconcord is a Multilingual Parallel Concordancer. Working with source
texts and their translations, it
allows the searching for words or phrases in any one of the languages and will
display the sentence(s) in which the search pattern occurs, together with the
sentence(s) which translate it. All languages can be either Source or Target
and switching between them is extremely simple. To minimise data preparation
the alignment is done during searching and results are usually at least 90%
accurate. A companion program is supplied to assist with the mark up. The
results can be sorted, filtered and categorised by the user. The results can
also be used to generate one of six types of language tests in either the
source or target language, which can be attempted on screen or saved as a
file. (quoted with permission April 11, 2000)
There is a textbook with a concordance-based approach: Focus on
vocabulary: Mastering the academic word list by Diane Schmitt and
Norbert Schmitt. 2005. Longman Pearson.
ReCALL 19 (3) is a special issue on the use of Corpora in Language
Learning, now in press, scheduled to be distributed in September 2007.
- Editorial by Angela Chambers
- Integrating learner corpora and natural language processing: a
crucial step towards reconciling technological sophistication and pedagogical
effectiveness by Sylviane Granger, Olivier Kraif, Claude Ponton, Georges
Antoniadis and Virgine Zampa
- Enhancing a process-oriented approach to literacy and language
learning: The role of corpus consultation literacy by Íde O'Sullivan
- Concgramming: A computer-driven approach to learning the
phraseology of English by Chris Greaves and Martin Warren
- Integrating corpus work into secondary education: from data-driven
learning to needs-driven corpora by Sabine Braun
- Using a multimodal concordancing tool for materials development by
Katherine Ackerley and Francesca Coccetta
- Learning English grammar with a corpus: experimenting with
concordancing in a university grammar course by Maria Estling Vannestål
and Hans Lindquist
- Book Reviews
- From Corpus to Classroom. Language use and language teaching
Anne O'Keeffe, Michael McCarthy and Ronald Carter Review by Fanny Meunier
- Corpora in the Foreign Language Classroom Encarnación
Hidalgo, Luis Quereda and Juan Santana (eds.) Review by John Osborne
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